Surfs to a human where, on what connectivity with what browser?
1 - It tests both. The first view test loads with a completely clear cache and the repeat view is with a very recent cache (closes the browser, re-opens it and visits the same page again).
2 - By default it simulates a DSL connection with a 50ms last-mile ping time/RTT. You can configure it for whatever form of connectivity you’d like though. The testers are also physically located across the globe so the latency to the site depends on where the test was run from.
Usually we see situations where the site performs really fast on the developer’s desktop because they are physically close to the server where the site is hosted on a really fast connection. That’s actually the main reason the tool was originally built because we had developers on 100Mbit ethernet connections < 1ms from the data center where the sites were hosted so the pages always seemed fast, even though for real users with real latencies it was excruciatingly painful.
If you have a specific test you have questions about you can shoot the url to me (firstname.lastname@example.org) and I can take a look.