Tourism - the phenomenon of spatial mobility of people, which is related to a voluntary change of residence, the environment and the rhythm of life. It covers the whole of the relations and phenomena related to tourism.
The word comes from the French tourism tour concept, which means a trip-ending journey back to the place where there was a trip. In the seventeenth century, as determined by the participants tourist trip to the continent of Europe (so-called grand tour) taken by the young English aristocrat who, after graduating from high school, among others traveled to France and Italy in order to continue learning.
World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) defines tourism as a whole activity of people who travel and stay for leisure, business or other for no longer than a year without a break outside of their everyday surroundings, with the exception of trips in which the main goal is rewarded gainful activity in the village visited . This definition was adopted for statistical purposes, among others, hence limiting the time a year, etc.
Tourism is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon, which refers to many aspects of human life. Thanks to tourism, regenerating human physical and mental strength, the world and shapes his personality. Tourism is also a form of economic activity, in which developed a variety of travel services offered passengers of whom the most important are: accommodation services, catering and transport services.
Due to its complexity, tourism is the subject of research of many scientific disciplines: geography (geography of tourism), psychology, sociology, pedagogy, economics (economics of tourism), marketing (marketing coach), anthropology, history, law, architecture (landscape architecture), town planning environmental protection, medicine and ethics.
Tourism is the subject of research in the following aspects:
spatial (migration tourist, tourist management),
economic Wyjazdy studenckie (tourism market, tourism, economic impacts of tourism development),
psychological (human needs, motives to take travel destinations, experiences and behaviors in the target place of residence),
social (relationships between tourists and the communities visited, social stereotypes, social ties),
cultural (tourism as a function of culture, the interaction between the culture represented by tourists visited the community and culture).
The nineteenth century was a turning point for tourism. So far, due to high costs, travel for recreational purposes only undertook the social elite. Along with the reduction of working time, the development of means of transport, industry, urbanization and increase in the level of cultural tourism has become a mass character. Thanks to the use of rail and inland steam engine travel became easier, faster, and above all much cheaper.
The first railway Przeprowadzki firm Warszawa line was created in 1825 in England. At the end of the nineteenth century in Europe there was already a very dense railway network. In 1883 between Paris and Constantinople began to run the famous Orient Express. At the turn of the century began to develop road transport. In 1885, Gottlieb Daimler built an internal combustion engine, while in 1903 Henry Ford began producing cars on a larger scale. The first motorway was founded in Italy in 1924. Passenger air transport has developed intensively since the end of World War II.
In 1841 Thomas Cook was founded in England, the first travel agency. Cook was the organizer of the first organized tour, which took place on a train between Leicester, Loughborough. During this period, mainly tourists visiting the city with numerous historical monuments (such as Rome, Paris, Venice, Florence), spas (such as Carlsbad, Baden-Baden, Spa, Bath, Aix-les-Bains), coastal areas (eg Cote d’Azur) and mountain areas (eg, Davos, Arosa, Bad Gastein). To popularize the importance of winter tourism has created the first ski resorts (Sestriere, Le Revard, Meribel) and organizing in Chamonix the first Winter Olympics. In addition, the company invoked to live and tourism associations: British Alpine Club (1857), Österreichischer Alpenverein (1862), Schweizer Alpen Club (1863) and the Club Alpino Italiano (1863). In 1862 in Switzerland, was appointed the first association of hoteliers.
After World War II (especially from the 50s) there was a sharp increase in tourist destination especially in the more prosperous countries of Western Europe and North America. The most popular tourist region was then the Mediterranean (particularly the coast of France, Spain and Italy). In the '60s and 70 intense growth of the tourism, ski built then most of the ski. In subsequent years, evolved in tourism regions located outside of Europe (islands in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and Oceania). In the 80s began to see the negative impact of mass tourism on the natural environment and local communities, and thus came the idea of ??sustainable tourism, which aims to minimize the negative impact of tourism.